Fish Oil: Benefits, Sources, Dosage, and Side Effects


In the past few years, research conducted on fish oil has resulted in many effective discoveries that are directly associated with our health. These researches found many benefits, as well as possible outcomes or side effects, nevertheless, fish oil turned out to be one of the most consumed dietary supplements in today’s world.

Fish oil supplements or some specific fishes are widely known for having rich omega 3 fatty acids, which is very much important for our health. Which is why fish oil holds such importance to many.

What is Fish Oil?

To explain in detail, fish oil refers to the fat or oil which is found in the tissue of some fishes.

Eating fish or taking fish oil supplements have benefited many people. Fish oil is found in many oily fish.

Fish fat or oil is so popular for being made up of 30% omega 3 fatty acids while the rest of the 70% is made up of other fats. Fish oil contains the two most important omega 3 fatty acids that are, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). It should be noted that the omega 3 fatty acids are found in fish oil and have more effective health benefits than the omega 3’s found in other plant sources as plants are richer in alpha-linolenic acid (ALA).

Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is important but eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have further health benefits to offer. Apart from omega 3 fatty acids, fish oil usually contains protein and vitamins A and D.

The World Health Organisation (WHO) has also advised people to consume at least 1-2 ounce of fish every week, for the sole benefits that the omega 3 fatty acids can provide.

Sources of Fish Oil

These beneficial oils or known otherwise as omega 3 fatty acids, which are derived mostly from oily fishes, such as tuna, salmon, mackerel, swordfish, herring, seal blubber, cod liver, whale blubber.

The most interesting thing about fish oil is that the fishes that are known as the sources for acquiring omega 3 fatty acids, do not actually have the beneficial oil among them. Instead, these fishes actually gather omega 3 fatty acids from consuming microalgae or prey fish. Predatory fishes such as king mackerel, shark, swordfish, and albacore tuna, are rich generally rich in fatty acids, due to having toxic contents such as mercury, PCBs, Dioxins, and Chlordane.

For those who do not eat enough fish on a weekly basis, fish oil supplements can provide enough omega 3 fatty acids to them.

How Does Fish Oil Work?

The thing is, our body does not produce omega 3 fatty acids. Our western diet has consistently increased our omega 3 fatty acid intake, but there’s no way to derive omega 3’s from there and the distorted ratio of fatty acid can cause a lot of trouble.

After a lot of research on the subject, it was finally concluded that the two most important types of omega 3 fatty acids, which are EPA and DHA can be found in certain oily fishes.

Benefits of Fish Oil

As a product rich in omega 3 fatty acids, fish oil is used around the world and in various ways for various reasons. These beneficial oils have been increasingly providing health benefits, decreasing pain, and swelling, and even many diseases related to kidney, heart, blood system, brain, and eye. Some uses of fish oils are listed below.


This is a condition where high levels of fat known as triglyceride are found in the blood. Elevated levels of triglyceride may cause atherosclerosis and acute pancreatitis. However, research shows, people with high levels of triglyceride can be reduced up to 30%-50% by intake of fish oils. General fish oil has a lesser effect on high levels of triglyceride in blood than certain drugs. But, some fish oil preparations are approved as prescribed drugs. Few small, unconfirmed research has also suggested that fish oil supplements don’t have the same useful effects on children and teens with high triglyceride levels.

There are a few other possible effects that are not entirely proven or there is insufficient evidence to prove such research and claims. These possible outcomes are listed below.

1. Improves Heart Health

Heart health is one of the most concerning factors in today’s world, as one of the leading causes of death has been proven to be due to heart diseases. Having said so, many studies have shown a lower rate of heart diseases among people who consume fish a lot. Not just heart diseases but many risk factors for heart diseases can possibly be reduced by the intake of fish and fish oil supplements.

  • High Blood Pressure: There have been instances where studies often showed fish oil to be effective among people with high blood pressure, in reducing the blood pressure levels, but the results were not consistent enough. Fish oil is also known to prevent blood pressure caused by the intake of cyclosporine medications prescribed after any organ transplant. After heart transplantation, long-term rise in blood pressure can be reduced by fish oil. There is also no evidence for treating high blood pressure and even a medical condition named Preeclampsia with fish oil, among pregnant women.
  • Heart Failure: Reduced risk of heart failure has also been directly linked with higher consumption of fish oil in foods. Fish oil supplements have also been recorded to have some positive effects on people already having experienced heart failure and prevent any unfavorable outcome at hand.
  • Cholesterol Levels: There are reasons to believe fish oil can increase levels of good HDL cholesterol, while there’s no possible outcome noticed for reducing bad LDL cholesterol levels by fish oil usage. Research has also suggested that people diagnosed with HIV/AIDS and are on medication can have unusual levels of cholesterol. Taking fish oil might reduce both cholesterol and triglyceride, but there it can not be said with a confirmation.
  • Plaques: Plaques are found in the blood that consists of fat, calcium, cholesterol, and other things, which over time hardens and narrows the arteries, reducing and blocking oxygen-rich blood flow to the heart and other parts of the body. Fish oil might have the ability to prevent plaques from hardening and for those who already have plaques, fish oil makes them stable and safer. It is also believed fish oil can reduce re-blockage of blood vessels up to 45% and for fruitful results often consumed for more than 3 weeks before Angioplasty, and continued for 1 month after. However, most of the research has come out with no effect found in cases of Atherosclerosis.
  • Fatal Arrhythmias: If you have irregular heart rates, or as it is medically termed Arrhythmias, fish oil may reduce episodes of fatal Arrhythmias. There has been much-conflicting evidence that does not support that oily or fat fish or fish oil can reduce the chances of irregular heartbeat.

2. Promotes Skin Health

Healthy skin is more of a requirement than a luxury. Simple factors like aging, sunlight can damage your skin in many ways leading to major skin disorders. And you would be happy to know, fish oil can benefit from many skin disorders.

  • Psoriasis: Itchy skin or severe Psoriasis may be reduced by fish oil. However, taking fish oil from the mouth seems to be ineffective, but administering fish oil intravenously may benefit.
  • Dermatitis: Dermatitis is a condition where your skin can have red patches, itchy rashes. This type of medical condition may also be treated through fish oil supplements.

3. Improves Bone Health

Fish oils can also be considered for improving bone health. Bone health is subjected to losing essential minerals with age. With old age, these persisting problems result in conditions like arthritis and osteoporosis. It is proven that for improving bone health, Calcium, Vitamin D are very important, while other studies suggest that omega 3 fatty acids can also be useful.

People having high omega 3 intakes may also have better bone mineral density. There is not much evidence to prove whether fish oil supplements improve bone mineral density but other studies suggest that it can prevent bone diseases by reducing markers of bone breakdown.

  • Osteoporosis: Many studies have come to believe that fish oil single handedly or with other supplements can slow the rate of bone loss. It is also thought to have properties to increase the bone density of spine and thigh bones among elderly people with Osteoporosis.
  • Rheumatoid Arthritis: Rheumatoid Arthritis refers to a medical condition where an individual feels pain and discomfort in joints, back, and muscles, often causing swelling and stiffness in affected areas. However, fish oil consumption through the mouth and with drugs may help in improving Rheumatoid Arthritis. Administering fish oil intravenously can help reduce swollen or tender joints in people diagnosed with Rheumatoid Arthritis.

4. Helps to Treat Certain Mental Disorders

Like heart health, mental health has also been a concern in every part of the world, with a huge number of people suffering from mental disorders. And with that, many studies have gotten close to preventing, treating mental disorders through fish oil, but could not derive any concrete solution for it.

Our brain contains nearly 60% fat, the majority of which are omega 3 fatty acids. And studies show that people with some mental disorder have lower omega 3 blood levels. So, it is safe to say that fish oil supplements might be effective on certain mental disorders.

  • Psychosis: Some research has reasons to believe that children and young adults with symptoms of psychosis can be prevented from developing full psychosis by taking fish oil supplements. These effects have not been tested among older people.
  • Bipolar Disorder: Bipolar Disorder is a mental disorder that is associated with episodes of mood swings, with depressive lows to manic highs. However, studies seem to claim that fish oil along with conventional treatments of Bipolar Disorder might improve the depressive lows, but there’s no evidence for improvisation of manic episodes.
  • ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder): Some of the early research on fish oil have suggested that it might improve attention, behavior and mental functions among children belonging to the 8-13 years age group with ADHD. Other studies have also stated that specific supplements containing fish oil along with evening primrose oil may help children with ADHD belonging to the 7-12 years age group, by improving mental function and behavior.
  • DCD (Developmental Coordination Disorder): These types of mental disorders are common among young school-going children, which affects their ability to perform everyday tasks normally, like, walking, coordinating, drawing often can be the reason for speech delay in a child. However, children with DCD ranging from 5-12 years have been tested with a combination of evening primrose oil (20%) and fish oil (80%), which seem to improve reading, spelling, and behavior.
  • Depression: Walking on the path to becoming the second largest cause of illness, Depression is a matter of concern in recent times. As we have mentioned before, people suffering from depression have lower blood omega 3 levels, thus, fish oil might be effective in case of depression. Moreover, other studies show that rich EPA in oils may help reduce depressive symptoms than DHA’s in oils.
  • Insomnia: A sleep disorder, where individuals find it hard to fall asleep or stay asleep for some time, and the event is repeated at least 3 times a week and prolongs more than 3 months. And, fish oil researches have been able to pull out some positive results of improved sleep if taken in a moderate amount. Another study claimed that 600mg of fish oil consumption regularly for about 16 weeks helped in improved sleep quality.

5. Promotes Eye Health

We are all aware of the fact that eating fish can benefit your eye and prevent eye diseases. But, there’s a lot of conflict and confusion about the effects of fish oil supplements on eye health. Similar to your brain, your eyes are also dependent on omega 3 fats, and lower omega 3s in people have been found to be more prone to eye diseases. Furthermore, early studies suggested that the risk of developing cataracts can be lowered by eating fish thrice weekly.

  • Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD): A hard thing about being concerned about your eye is your growing age. The general functions of your eye tend to decline with growing age, medically termed as Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD). Many studies have been done to see the benefits of fish oil on patients of AMD, and a few did show positive results, but some conclusions were still doubtable.
  • Dry Eye: Dry eye is a condition where an individual’s eye fails to produce enough tears to even keep the eye functions running normally. However, in women, consuming fish oil from diet, at a higher rate has been associated with a lower risk of dry eye. Fish oil showed positive results by reducing pain, sensitivity and blurred vision in people with dry eyes, but the results are much debated.

6. Helps in Inflammation

It is true that fish oil has anti-inflammatory properties, for which it may also be useful in treating chronic inflammation. Though inflammation is generally your body’s way of fighting off infection, chronic inflammation can do more harm than repair. Illnesses like obesity, depression, diabetes, heart diseases are all associated with chronic inflammation.

So, if inflammation is treated properly, the rest of the diseases can be treated as well. It is where fish oil plays an important part, as fish oil supplements have shown positive results previously for significantly reducing joint pain, stiffness in people diagnosed with Rheumatoid Arthritis, even it can decrease the need for medication in such conditions.

In other cases, fish oil has often reduced the production of an inflammatory molecule known as, Cytokines, among individuals having Obesity or stress. Though there’s so much fish oil has done in cases of inflammation, it is still unclear if fish oil supplements can be beneficial in cases of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD).

7. Liver Fat

A few limited research have come to the conclusion that fish oil might be beneficial for Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) among both children and adults. The liver has the key role of processing fat in your body and thus, it can also be pointed out for weight gain.

Among many liver diseases, Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease is very common, which collects fat in the liver. As fish oil is known for its inflammatory properties, fish oil supplements can help in reducing symptoms of NAFLD by also reducing the accumulated fat in your liver.

8. Beneficial during Pregnancy

Fish oil has often been beneficial for all pregnant mothers as well as their unborn child. Omega 3 is one of the most important components for growth and development, pregnant and breastfeeding mothers may rely on fish oil supplements to enhance different skills among infants.

Improved visual development and lesser risk of allergies might be achieved among infants by taking fish oil supplements by mothers. Other than that, women with Antiphospholipid Syndrome can consume fish oil by mouth to prevent miscarriages.

9. Maintains Healthy Body Weight

Be it excessive weight gain or Obesity; or weight loss among ill people, fish oil have shown somewhat positive results to both symptoms. There have been instances where some studies were close to believing that, fish oil supplements along with a nutritious diet and exercises can aid in your challenge of weight loss.

Obesity, which is quickly growing all over the world, especially in rich countries, it also steadily increased the rate of other illnesses associated with Obesity, such as, Type-2 Diabetes, Cancer and heart diseases. However, to decrease the chances of heart disease and improvise body composition, fish oil may help you in that.

On the other hand, cancer patients who rapidly lose weight may benefit from using a high dosage of fish oil. Fish oil might have some properties to slow down the process of weight loss, among Cancer patients, when consumed in a high dose.

10. Improves Kidney Functions

Long-term usage of fish oil has shown positive outcomes by slowing loss of kidney functions for patients at higher risk of IgA Nephropathy. The outcome is more acute in patients having higher protein levels in urine and can possibly have a greater effect by consuming high doses.

People, who have had organ transplants, and are on a certain type of medication called Cyclosporine, which reduces the rate of organ rejection among patients. However, this drug usage might also cause kidney damage, which may be prevented by fish oil. Fish oil can also aid in patients who are recovering from the rejection of transplanted organs and were taking Cyclosporine.

There is also small evidence that supports fish oil intake among people with some sort of serious kidney disease to improve their conditions.

Other possible and lesser-known effects of Fish Oil

  • Menstruation Cramps: Menstruation cramps or Dysmenorrhea refers to a pain in the lower abdomen, often in muscles and back, with other symptoms among almost every woman during her monthly menstrual cycle. Some research shows taking fish oil alone or with Vitamin E or B12 can reduce period cramps among women to even reduce the need for consuming pain medications.
  • Alzheimer’s: Alzheimer’s is a disease where people with the disease tend to suffer from memory loss due to the degeneration of brain cells. There has been some conflicting evidence that suggests that fish oil intake may prevent Alzheimer’s.
  • Asthma: Asthma is one of the largest growing diseases around the world, especially among children, which deals with swelling in the lungs, resulting in shortness of breath. Studies have often proven fish oil to be effective among Asthma patients from an early age. Further, some positive results also came out stating, mother’s intake of fish or fish oil may reduce the risk of Asthma among their children up to 24%-29%.
  • Raynaud’s Syndrome: This is a certain disorder where an individual when some areas of your body become numb due to certain stressful circumstances. However, some evidence proves that fish oil improves cold tolerance in these conditions. But people with progressive systemic sclerosis do not get benefitted from fish oil or fish oil supplements.
  • HIV/AIDS: In some of the HIV/AIDS patients, the blood fat levels often go over the roof. As fish oil has shown positive results in reducing triglyceride levels, people having an abnormal rate of cholesterol level due to HIV/AIDS may also be benefitted from fish oil usage.

Also Read: Best Fish Oil Supplements in India

Side Effects of Fish Oil

By now, you know how much you may be benefitted from consuming, fish, fish oil or fish oil supplements. Though there are many benefits aligned with fish oil and fish oil supplements, there are also a few controversies surrounding many pieces of research reaching different conclusions.

1. High Blood Sugar

Diabetes or high blood sugar levels can alone be a complicated situation, and nobody wishes to have it elevated. There is proof that a high amount of omega 3 fatty acids can increase blood sugar levels among people already having Diabetes, as omega 3s have the ability to stimulate glucose production.

Among many studies conducted on Diabetes patients, a small one, strongly suggested that there was a massive 22% increase of blood sugar levels, for those consuming 8 grams or more fish oil on a daily basis for a period of eight weeks.

To confuse you a bit further, there are two more studies that have derived two opposite outcomes. While one showed, only a high dosage of fish oil can affect people with Diabetes. Another one showed no effect on people with Type-2 Diabetes, who were under daily dosage of 3.9 grams of EPA and 3.7 grams of DHA.

2. Low Blood Pressure

While discussing the benefits we have previously mentioned that, fish oil has derived positive results in reducing blood pressure among people with high blood pressure. Fish oil has been tested on individuals with high blood pressure or high cholesterol level, which have successfully resulted in diminishing blood pressure.

So, it is no hard thing to understand that, fish oil might cause adverse effects on those who already have low blood pressure. There is also evidence that states fish oil might interact with medications for lowering blood pressure, which is why it is best to consult with a medical expert before taking any supplement.

3. Bleeding

Two important side-effects of excess fish oil consumption are nose bleeding and bleeding gums. One research showed that consuming approximately 640 mg of fish oil daily can decrease blood clotting. However, another small study linked a higher risk of nosebleeds. To be precise, the study tells, 72% of adults consuming 1-5 grams of fish oil daily, experienced nosebleeds as part of side-effects of fish oil.

This is the reason why consuming fish oil before surgeries should be discussed with your doctor first. Even consuming fish oil along with blood thinners prior to surgery needs expert approval.

4. Diarrhea

Like bleeding, Diarrhea is another way to determine fish oil side-effects, along with other digestive symptoms.

In fact, it is not just fish oil, whose adverse effects can cause Diarrhea, but omega 3 supplements altogether can result in Diarrhea. For example, plant sources of omega 3 fatty acids, such as flaxseeds, have shown, laxative effects and might even increase bowel movement frequency.

The only way to determine for sure, if fish oil or fish oil supplements are causing side-effects, is to take the supplements with a meal or consider reducing intake of fish oil supplements to understand if the effects are persisting.

5. Acid Reflux

Acid Reflux refers to a condition where an individual feels a burning sensation in the lower chest area which is also known as heartburn. This type of heartburn has been noticed among many people, after consuming fish oil.

Consumption of fat content can trigger indigestion, thus, fish oil is also thought to have the same effect on certain individuals. The common effects of taking fish oil in the case of Acid Reflux include nausea, bleaching, stomach discomfort, probably for the existing fat contents among fish oil.

However, the prevention of such conditions can be restricted by reducing the dosage to moderate levels and eating meals with supplements. Splitting your regular dose into smaller portions throughout the day might also aid in these types of situations.

6. Vitamin A Toxicity

There are a few omega 3 acid supplements that are high in Vitamin A. And consuming a large amount of Vitamin A can also be toxic to your health. One tablespoon or 14 grams of cod liver oil can deliver up to 270% of daily Vitamin A needs in a single person.

Vitamin A is surely good for health, but too much Vitamin A can likely cause effects such as dizziness, nausea, skin irritation and joint pain, and long-term usage might even result in damaging the liver, or aid to liver failure in severe cases. This is why one should have known about the contents in your omega 3 acid supplements before consuming them religiously.

7. Allergic To Seafood Or Fish

Many people have allergies or reactions to many food items, smells, and even medications, and it is almost normal, as every individual has different capabilities, resistance, and reactions to different ingredients. So it is nothing new, that many people might also be allergic to fishes or seafood altogether.

So, if you are allergic to fish or seafood, it is wise to stay away from even fish oil, as it can cause an allergic reaction. It is not clear yet how fish oil usage can affect people having such allergies. So, until something comes out of research, it is better to stay away from fish oil or use it cautiously.

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Conflicting Results on Fish Oil

There are many conflicting studies on fish oil, out of which, only a few have been successful in delivering a concrete result, but the rest of the studies are still under a cloud of doubt. These conflicting results are listed below, some of which are mentioned either in the uses and benefits section or the side-effects.

  • Many sources believe that it is safe for children to consume fish oil through the mouth, or through a feeding tube or even injected intravenously by a medical expert. However, there is still confusion about whether to consider consuming fish from dietary sources. Further, it explains that oily and fatty fishes contain toxins like mercury. Eating such toxic, rather contaminated food on a regular basis can affect your child’s health fatally.
  • We have previously mentioned that fish oil may benefit pregnant women and mothers as well as their children. But it is still advised to not eat fishes like swordfish, shark or king mackerel, for containing toxins such as mercury. The general limit for consuming fish oil for pregnant women is limited to 12 ounces of fish in a week, but taking fish oil in large amounts from dietary sources is likely unsafe. There are some other reports that suggest, fish oil consumptions during pregnancy, has no effects on preventing allergies among the unborn child.
  • Fish oil along with conventional medicines is often used for people with Bipolar Disorder to help improve the depressive lows, but there’s no evidence for improvisation of manic episodes. Even some of the studies have reasons to believe that taking fish oil might increase a few symptoms of Bipolar Disorder.
  • Though fish oil is considered to be beneficial for Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) among both children and adults with its inflammatory properties. But, for people with liver diseases, fish oil may increase bleeding in case of liver scarring for these people.
  • The effects of fish oil on people with Familial Adenomatous Polyposis is very concerning, as some questioned the role of fish oil on the increasing risk of developing cancer.
  • Taking fish oil often lowers the ability of your body’s immune system, which can complicate matters for people who already have a weak immune system, for example, in people diagnosed with HIV/AIDS and other conditions where immunity system gets weakened.
  • There has been much-conflicting evidence that does not support that oily or fat fish or fish oil can reduce the chances of irregular heartbeat. A few studies even went on to believe that, instead of decreasing the chances of irregular heartbeats, it increases the symptoms on people with an implanted defibrillator.
  • Some studies have shown negative results on using fish oil for improving heart health among people suffering from chest pain, which may increase risk factors instead of improving heart health.
  • Many studies have failed to prove that fish oil can improve or prevent Eczema. They even suggested that fish oil can prevent Eczema from passing on from mother to child. However, the risk of developing Eczema or Atopic Dermatitis may be decreased among children aging 1-2 years, by eating fish at least once a week. If once developed Eczema, fish oil might not help any longer.
  • A lower dosage of fish oil among people with Osteoarthritis has derived positive effects, while higher dosage has been less effective. The reason for this may be considered due to a ‘Placebo effect’.  It further disclosed that adding glucosamine with fish oil does not reduce pain or stiffness, rather, glucosamine alone can have better results.
  • It is still a matter of conflict if motor skills among children with DCD can be improved from fish oil supplements.
  • Fish oil consumption has not been proven to improve cognitive functions such as memory and thinking, among, children, young adults, and even older people.
  • Clinical evidence shows that taking fish oil by mouth for up to 5 years does not prevent any loss of vision.
  • Eating fish has been believed to decrease the risk of developing AMD, but there’s no proven ground for fish oil supplements to be able to say the same.
  • Though early evidence suggested that fish oil can help prevent Alzheimer’s. However, it does not help prevent the symptoms of Alzheimer if already diagnosed with the disease.
  • Though the discomfort, pain in a person with Dry Eyes might be soothed by fish oil; but, it does not improve the very symptoms of dry eye; producing tear and eye surface damage.
  • Contrary to popular beliefs, fish oil can not be taken as a solution for longer life expectancy after kidney transplant. Neither does it prevent your body from rejecting the transplant.

Dosage of Fish Oil

  • For people with a high level of triglyceride in the blood, researchers have used 1-15 grams of fish oil on a daily basis for up to 6 months, which consists of at least 3.5 grams of omega 3 fatty acids. The dosage is distributed through four capsules consisting of 1 gram prescribe fish oil products. In the case of non-prescribed fish oil supplements, this dosage needs to increase to 12 capsules on a daily basis.
  • For high blood pressure conditions, studies showed 4-15 grams of fish oil daily. The daily dosage can be divided into a few doses throughout the day or taken at a single time. This needs to be continued for up to 36 weeks.
  • 1 gram of fish oil daily for 2.9 years has been used for heart failure conditions.
  • In the case of Angioplasty,  fish oil has been seen to be beneficial when used from a month before Angioplasty and continued for 1 month and more after that. The normal dosage one month before and after Angioplasty is 6 grams of fish oil daily and after that, lowering dosage up to 3 grams for a 6 months period. Some other studies have also used 15 grams of fish oil daily for about 3 weeks before Angioplasty and for the next 6 months after that.
  • CABG surgery, to improve blood flow to the heart 4 grams of fish has been recommended. These 4 grams of fish oil must contain 2.04 grams of EPA and 1.3 grams of DHA, which needs to be consumed regularly for a year.
  • High blood pressure caused by the usage of a drug Cyclosporine after certain organ transplant, have often been prevented through fish oil consumption. The dose of fish oil for heart transplant conditions is 3-4 grams of omega 3 fatty acids daily, after the transplant for 6 months. And in case of a kidney transplant, the dosage of fish oil is 2-18 grams of fish oil for 1-12 months regularly.
  • For conditions concerning a heart transplant, 4 grams of fish oil have been used, which must contain 46.5% EPA and 37.8% of DHA for a year on a daily basis.
  • Research says fish oil which has 3.6 grams of EPA and 2.4 grams of DHA, for a period of 15 weeks regularly along with UVB therapy has been useful in people with a scaly or itchy skin condition, medically termed as Psoriasis. In this condition, fish oil has also been used through IV. About 100-200 ml of specific fish oil, which contains 2.1 to 4.2 grams of EPA and 2.1 to 4.2 grams of DHA can be used for 10-14 days. Fish oil has also been applied under a dressing for Psoriasis conditions, daily for 6 hours continuing up to 4 weeks.
  • In conditions concerning Osteoporosis, scientific researches have used four 500mg capsules which consists of a mixture of fish oil and evening primrose oil. This mixture has to be taken 3 times daily alongside meals, 600 mg of calcium carbonate for a period of 18 months.
  • For the people with Rheumatoid Arthritis, 10 grams of fish oil for 6 months daily, which contains 0.5-4.6 grams of EPA and 0.2-3.0 grams of DHA have been used. Often the fish oil is also taken along with Vitamin E-15 IU, daily for a period of 15 months. Fish oil can be injected intravenously through IV for Rheumatoid Arthritis conditions. The dosage through IV consists of fish oil with 0.1-0.2 mg/kg of omega-3 fatty acids for 7 days straight. Another process includes specific fish oil solution worth of 0.2 grams/kg for non-stop 14 days, followed by a fish oil intake of 0.05 grams through the mouth for 20 weeks regularly.
  • It has also been used in patients with Psychosis, abiding by a dosage of fish oil containing 700 mg of EPA and 480 mg of DHA, mixed along with other omega 3 fatty acids and tocopherols, for 12 weeks daily.
  • To see the effects of fish oil among patients with Bipolar Disorder, researchers have used fish oil containing 6.2 grams of EPA and 3.4 grams of DHA, for a time of 4 months on a daily basis.
  • Among patients with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder or ADHD, a specific supplement of six capsules containing 100 mg of evening primrose oil and 400 mg of fish oil, daily for 15 weeks has been used.
  • Among children with motor skill disorder or medically known as Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), fish oil can be consumed through the mouth. The fish oil though should contain 558 mg of EPA and 174 mg of DHA, which has to be given to the child aged between 5-12 years, divided into 3 doses throughout the day for 3 months. Fish oil has also been used with a combination of evening primrose oil, thyme oil, and Vitamin E, which has to be taken for 4 months regularly.
  • Women having an autoimmune disorder called an antiphospholipid syndrome, which leads to miscarriages, 5.1 grams of fish oil with EPA: DHA ratio of 1.5 have been used daily for 3 years to prevent miscarriages.
  • Very ill persons dealing with involuntary weight loss, have tested with 30 ml of specific fish oil product, which has, 4.9 grams of EPA and 3.2 grams of DHA for 4 weeks on a daily basis. Other doses include a daily dosage of 7.5 grams of fish oil, consisting of EPA 4.7 grams and DHA 2.8 grams for about 6 weeks. Additionally, fish oil nutrient supplement of two cans consisting of 1.09 grams of EPA and 0.96 grams of DHA can also be used for up to 7 weeks.
  • Kidney damage caused by the usage of a drug Cyclosporine after certain organ transplant, have often been prevented through fish oil consumption. For the Liver transplant, 12 grams of fish oil daily has been consumed for a period of 2 months. In the case of kidney, transplant researches show, 6 grams of fish oil consumption for up to 3 months daily have been tested.
  • IgA Nephropathy, a condition that slowly leads to kidney disease, 1-12 grams of fish oil have been used in studies, for a period of 2-4 years on a daily basis. 3 grams of fish oil has also been used alongside, a drug named renin-angiotensin system blocker (RASB) daily, continuing it for a course of 6 months.
  • A condition named Dysmenorrhea, where women experience painful menstruation cramps, a daily dose of fish oil having 1080 mg of EPA and 720 mg DHA alongside 1.5 mg of vitamin E daily have been used for 2 months daily. Other usage includes 500-2500 mg of fish oil daily for 2-4 months time period.
  • Among people with Raynaud’s Syndrome, 3.96 grams of EPA and 2.64 grams of DHA from fish oil for a period of 12 weeks has been used.
  • In HIV/AIDS, where patients develop higher levels of blood fat, two capsules of specific fish oil supplements to be precise, which consists of 460 mg of EPA plus 380 mg of DHA, for 12 weeks have been used twice daily.


Fish oil and fish oil supplements are highly conflicted items in medical science. While almost half of the researchers claim to fish oil having several beneficial effects abiding by the positive results. On the other hand, others claim fish oil to be of little to no effect, to even exaggerate a few symptoms in certain conditions.

Despite all the confusion surrounding fish oil and fish oil supplements usage and its effects, fish oil is one of the most consumed items in the world. Here’s a bit of knowledge about fish oil and fish oil supplement, for you to decide whether to go for it or not.

Sraya is Health & Nutrition Content Writer at Zotezo since 2019. Her master's in Zoology has helped her to pull out critical scientific aspects of health and nutrition into user-friendly and easy to understand language for the readers. You can find her articles on medium and wordpress!
Dr. Naresh Dang is an MD in Internal Medicine. He has special interest in the field of Diabetes, and has over two decades of professional experience in his chosen field of specialty. Dr. Dang is an expert in the managememnt of Diabetes, Hypertension and Lipids. He also provides consultation for Life Style Management.

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